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GMAT逻辑90题(二)

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46. Twelve healthy volunteers with the Apo-A-IV-1 gene and twelve healthy volunteers who instead have the Apo-A-IV-2 gene each consumed a standard diet supplemented daily by a high-cholesterol food. A high level of cholesterol in the blood is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. After three weeks, the blood cholesterol levels of the subjects in the second group were unchanged, whereas the blood cholesterol levels of those with the Apo-A-IV-1 gene rose 20 percent.

  Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the inFORMation above?

  (A) Approximately half the population carries a gene that lowers cholesterol levels.

  (B) Most of those at risk of heart disease may be able to reduce their risk by adopting a low-cholesterol diet.

  (C) The bodies of those who have the Apo-A-IV-2 gene excrete cholesterol when blood cholesterol reaches a certain level.

  (D) The presence of the Apo-A-IV-1 gene seems to indicate that a person has a lower risk of heart disease.

  (E) The presence of the Apo-A-IV-2 gene may inhibit the elevation of blood cholesterol.

  47. High school students who feel that they are not succeeding in school often drop out before graduating and go to work. Last year, however, the city's high school dropout rate was significantly lower than the previous year's rate. This is encouraging evidence that the program instituted two years ago to improve the morale of high school students has begun to take effect to reduce dropouts.

  Which one of the following, if true about the last year, most seriously weakens the argument?

  (A) There was a recession that caused a high level or unemployment in the city.

  (B) The morale of students who dropped out of high school had been low even before they reached high school.

  (C) As in the preceding year, more high school students remained in school than dropped out.

  (D) High schools in the city established placement offices to assist their graduates in obtaining employment.

  (E) The antidropout program was primarily aimed at improving students' morale in those high schools with the highest dropout rates.

  48. The television show Henry was not widely watched until it was scheduled for Tuesday evenings immediately after That's Life, the most popular show on television. During the year after the move, Henry was consistently one of the ten most-watched shows on television. Since Henry's recent move to Wednesday evenings, however, it has been watched by far fewer people. We must conclude that Henry was widely watched before the move to Wednesday evenings because it followed That's Life and not because people especially liked it.

  Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

  (A) Henry has been on the air for three years, but That's Life has been on the air for only two years.

  (B) The show that replaced Henry on Tuesdays has persistently had a low number of viewers in the Tuesday time slot.

  (C) The show that now follows That's Life on Tuesdays has double the number of viewers it had before being moved.

  (D) After its recent move to Wednesday, Henry was aired at the same time as the second most popular show on television.

  (E) That's Life was not widely watched during the first year it was aired

  Questions 49-50

  Joseph: My encyclopedia says that the mathematician Pierre de Fermat died in 1665 without leaving behind any written proof for a theorem that he claimed nonetheless to have proved. Probably this alleged theorem simply cannot be proved, since——as the article points out——no one else has been able to prove it. Therefore it is likely that Fermat was either lying or else mistaken when he made his claim.

  Laura: Your encyclopedia is out of date. Recently someone has in fact proved Fermat's theorem. And since the theorem is provable, your claim——that Fermat was lying or mistaken——clearly is wrong.

  49. Joseph's statement that "this alleged theorem simply cannot be proved" plays which one of the following roles in his argument?

  (A) an assumption for which no support is offered

  (B) a subsidiary conclusion on which his argument's main conclusion is based

  (C) a potential objection that his argument anticipates and attempts to answer before it is raised

  (D) the principle claim that his argument is structured to refute

  (E) background inFORMation that neither supports nor undermines his argument's conclusion

  50. Which one of the following most accurately describes a reasoning error in Laura's argument?

  (A) It purports to establish its conclusion by making a claim that, if true, would actually contradict that conclusion.

  (B) It mistakenly assumes that the quality of a person's character can legitimately be taken to guarantee the accuracy of the claims that person has made.

  (C) It mistakes something that is necessary for its conclusion to follow for something that ensures that the conclusion follows.

  (D) It uses the term "provable" without defining it.

  (E) It fails to distinguish between a true claim that has mistakenly between believed to be false and a false claim that has mistakenly been believed to be true.

  51. People who have political power tend to see new technologies as a means of extending or protecting their power, whereas they generally see new ethical arguments and ideas as a threat to it. Therefore, technical ingenuity usually brings benefits to those who have this ingenuity, whereas ethical inventiveness brings only pain to those who have this inventiveness.

  Which one of the following statements, if true, most strengthens the argument?

  (A) Those who offer new ways of justifying current political power often reap the benefits of their own innovations.

  (B) Politically powerful people tend to reward those who they believe are useful to them and to punish those who they believe are a threat.

  (C) Ethical inventiveness and technical ingenuity are never possessed by the same individuals

  (D) New technologies are often used by people who strive to defeat those who currently have political power.

  (E) Many people who possess ethical inventiveness conceal their novel ethical arguments for fear of retribution by the politically powerful.

  52. Birds need so much food energy to maintain their body temperatures that some of them spend most of their time eating. But a comparison of a bird of a seed-eating species to a bird of a nectar-eating species that has the same overall energy requirement would surely show that the seed-eating bird spends more time eating than does the nectar-eating bird, since a given amount of nectar provides more energy than does the same amount of seeds

  The argument relies on which one of the following questionable assumptions

  (A) Birds of different species do not generally have the same overall energy requirements as each other

  (B) The nectar-eating bird does not sometimes also eat seeds

  (C) The time it takes for the nectar-eating bird to eat a given amount of nectar is not longer than the time it takes the seed-eating bird to eat the same amount of seeds

  (D) The seed-eating bird does not have a lower body temperature than that of the nectar-eating bird

  (E) The overall energy requirements of a given bird do not depend on factors such as the size of the bird, its nest-building habits; and the climate of the region in which it lives

  53. When investigators discovered that the director of a local charity had repeatedly overstated the number of people his charity had helped, the director accepted responsibility for the deception. However, the investigators claims that journalists were as much to blame as the director was for inflating the charity's reputation, since they had naively accepted what the director told them, and simply reported as fact the numbers he gave them.

  Which one of the following principles, if valid, most helps to justify the investigators' claim

  (A) Anyone who works for a charitable organization is obliged to be completely honest about the activities of that organization.

  (B) Anyone who knowingly aids a liar by trying to conceal the truth from others is also a liar.

  (C) Anyone who presents as factual a story that turns out to be untrue without first attempting to verify that story is no less responsible for the consequences of that story than anyone else is.

  (D) Anyone who lies in order to advance his or her own career is more deserving of blame than someone who lies in order to promote a good cause.

  (E) Anyone who accepts responsibility for a wrongful act that he or she committed is less deserving of blame than someone who tries to conceal his or her own wrongdoing.

  54. Telephone companies are promoting "voice mail" as an alternative to the answering machine. By recording messages from callers when a subscriber does not have access to his or her telephone, voice mail provides a service similar to that of an answering machine. The companies promoting this service argue that it will soon make answering machines obsolete, since it is much more convenient, more flexible, and less expensive than an answering machine.

  which one of the following, if true, most calls into question the argument made by the companies promoting voice mail?

  (A) Unlike calls made to owners of answering machines, all telephone calls made to voice-mail subscribers are completed, even if the line called is in use at the time of the call.

  (B) The surge in sales of answering machines occurred shortly after they were first introduced to the electronics market.

  (C) Once a telephone customer decides to subscribe to voice mail, that customer can cancel the service at any time.

  (D) Answering machines enable the customer to hear who is calling before the customer decides whether to answer the telephone, a service voice mail does not provide.

  (E) The number of messages a telephone answering machine can record is limited by the length of the magnetic tape on which calls are recorded

  Questions 55-56

  The simple facts are these: the number of people killed each year by bears is about the same as the number of people killed by lightning of golf courses. And the number of people killed by lightning on golf courses each year is about the same as the number of people electrocuted by electric blenders. All the horrible myths and gruesome stories aside, therefore a grizzly bear is in fact about as dangerous as an electric blender or a game of golf.

  55. Which one of the following is an assumption that the author relies upon in the passage?

  (A) Most incidents involving grizzly bears are fatal.

  (B) Grizzly bears are no longer the danger they once were.

  (C) The number of fatalities per year is an adequate indication of something's dangerousness.

  (D) A golf course is a particularly dangerous place to be in a thunderstorm.

  (E) Something is dangerous only if it results in death in the majority of cases.

  56. Which one of the following, if true, would most effectively undermine the author's argument?

  (A) Although the number of people killed by lightning on golf courses each year is very small, the total number of lightning fatalities is many times greater.

  (B) Electric blenders are among the safest housed hold appliances; were the author to compare fatalities from electrical appliances in general, she would get a much higher figure.

  (C) Most people would rather take their chances with benders and golf games than with grizzly bears.

  (D) Bears in general——including black, brown, and cinnamon bears, as well as grizzly bears——kill many more people than do electric blenders.

  (E) Statistics show that the number of times people use electric blenders each year exceeds the number of times people play golf each year, which in turn far exceeds the number of contacts people have with grizzly bears each year.

  57. Free public education is the best FORM of education there is. Therefore, we must fight to ensure its continued existence; that is, we must be ready to defend the principle of equality of educational opportunity. Because this principle is well worth defending, it is clear that free public education is better than any other FORM of education.

  Which one of the following illustrates the same weak reasoning as found in the passage?

  (A) I love music, and that's why I listen to it constantly. I have my stereo or radio on every waking minute. Since I lay music all the time, I must really love it.

  (B) Books are my most valuable possessions. My books are like my friends——each pleases me in different ways. Just as I would give up everything to save my friends, so too with my books.

  (C) I would much rather be poor and respected than be rich and despises. To have the respect of others is far more valuable than to have millions of dollars.

  (D) I have never been betrayed by any of my friends. They have been true to me through good times and bad. Therefore I will never betray any of my friends.

  (E) Because every plant I have ever seen has green leaves, I have concluded that all plants must have green leaves. This looks like a plant but it does not have green leaves, so it cannot be a plant.

  58. Some people say that the scarcity of food is a function of the finite limits of the earth's resources, coupled with a relentless rate of population growth. This analysis fails to recognize, however, that much of the world's agricultural resources are used to feed livestock instead of people. In the United States, for example, almost one-half of the agricultural acreage is devoted to crops fed to livestock. A steer reduces twenty-one pounds of inexpensive grain to one pound of expensive meat. Thus, the scarcity of food is not merely a function of limited resources and population growth.

  Which one of the following is an assumption that would allow the conclusion in the argument to be properly drawn?

  (A) People prefer eating meat to eating grain.

  (B) Meat is twenty-one times more expensive than grain.

  (C) The limits of the earth's agricultural resources are not finite.

  (D) More than one-half of the agricultural acreage in the United States is devoted to drops fed to humans.

  (E) Growing crops for human consumption on the acreage currently devoted to crops for livestock will yield more food for more people.

  59. Top college graduates are having more difficulty demonstrating their superiority to prospective employers than did the top students of twenty years ago when an honors degree was distinction enough. Today's employers are less impressed with the honors degree. Twenty years ago no more than 10 percent of a given class graduated with honors. Today, however, because of grade inflation, the honors degree goes to more than 50 percent of a graduating class. Therefore, to restore confidence in the degrees they award, colleges must take steps to control grade inflation.

  Which one of the following is an assumption that, if true, would support the conclusion in the passage?

  (A) Today's students are not higher achievers than the students of twenty years ago.

  (B) Awarding too many honors degrees causes colleges to inflate grades.

  (C) Today's employers rely on honors ranking in making their hiring decisions.

  (D) It is not easy for students with low grades to obtain jobs.

  (E) Colleges must make employers aware of the criteria used to determine who receives an honor degree.

  60. One of the more reliable methods of determining regional climatic conditions in prehistoric periods is to examine plant pollen trapped in glacial ice during ancient times. By comparing such pollen samples with spores take from modern vegetation, scientists can figure out approximately what the weather was like at the time of pollen deposition. Furthermore, by submitting the prehistoric samples to radiocarbon dating techniques, we can also determine when certain climatic conditions were prevalent in that portion of the globe.

  Which one of the following may be inferred from the inFORMation in the passage?

  (A) The earth has undergone several glacial periods.

  (B) Radiocarbon dating can be corroborated by glacial evidence.

  (C) Similarities between prehistoric and contemporary climates do not exist.

  (D) Pollen deposition is a fairly continuous process.

  (E) Certain flora are reliably associated with particular climatic conditions.

  61. Investigators concluded that human failure was not responsible for the fatal airplane crash last August, and since that time new and more stringent rules for identifying and reporting mechanical problems have been in effect. That accounts for the fact that reports of airplane mechanical problems have increased in frequency by 50 percent since last August.

  Which one of the following is an assumption underlying the argument in the passage?

  (A) Airplane travel is still relatively safe, despite the increase in reported mechanical problems.

  (B) Mechanical problems in airplanes have increased dramatically since last August.

  (C) Mechanical problems in airplanes have not increased by 50 percent since last August.

  (D) Airlines are less reluctant to report mechanical problems than they previously were.

  (E) Mechanical problems in airplanes have become easier to detect since last August.

  62. Brushing your teeth regularly no matter which toothpaste you use, will reduce your chances of tooth decay. Scientists have concluded that, when you brush, you reduce tooth decay by removing the film of plaque that FORMs on teeth and gums. So, you can forget about fluorides: brush your teeth carefully and say goodbye to cavities.

  Which one of the following is a criticism of the reasoning in the argument?

  (A) Brushing with fluoride toothpaste has been shown to reduce tooth decay.

  (B) The fact that brushing will reduce tooth decay does not show that fluorides are of no value.

  (C) Few people adequately remove plaque by brushing.

  (D) People have plaque on their teeth most of the time.

  (E) Scientists have been wrong about fluorides.

  63. Some good cooks are gourmet cooks who pride themselves on always using extravagantly rich ingredients in elaborate recipes. Some good cooks can be characterized as fast-food cooks. They may use rich ingredients as long as the recipes are easy to follow and take little time. Other good cooks are health food enthusiasts, who are concerned primarily with the nutritional value of food. But even though not all good cooks are big eaters, they all enjoy preparing and serving food.

  If the inFORMation in the passage is true, which one of the following CANNOT be true?

  (A) Most good cooks do not use extravagantly rich ingredients.

  (B) Everyone who enjoys preparing and serving food is a good cook.

  (C) More good cooks who use extravagantly rich ingredients are big eaters than are good cooks who do not use such ingredients.

  (D) There are fewer good cooks who enjoy serving and preparing food than there are good cooks who are big eaters.

  (E) Gourmet cooks, fast-food cooks, and cooks who are health food enthusiasts are all big eaters

  Questions 64-65

  If the city council institutes new parking regulations, city revenues will surely increase, since studies have conclusively shown that, if such parking regulations are put into effect, there is an increase in parking violations, and an increase in parking violations will result in a greater number of parking fines collected.

  64. If the statements in the passage are true, which one of the following must also be true?

  (A) Unless there is an increase in the number of parking violations in the city, city revenues will not increase.

  (B) If the city council institutes new parking regulations, the council will fall from favor with the citizens.

  (C) The city council will institute new parking regulations only if an increase in city revenues can be expected to result.

  (D) If the city council's new regulations cause more parking violators to be ticketed, the city revenues will increase.

  (E) Unless the city institutes a complex system of parking regulations, the city cannot expect traffic violations to increase.

  65. According to advertisements, the higher a suntan lotion's sun protection factor, or SPE, the more protection from sunburn. In order for a suntan lotion to work, however, one has to remember to put it on before going in the sun, put on an adequate amount to cover the skin, and reapply it as needed. Therefore, it really does not matter what SPE a suntan lotion has.

  Which one of the following best identifies the error in reasoning made in the passage?

  (A) It is unreasonable to assume that the only purpose of a suntan lotion is to provide protection from sunburn.

  (B) Because some people get sunburned more easily than other, the fact that there are different SPEs cannot be ignored.

  (C) It cannot be concluded that the SPEs is not important just because there are requirements for the application of the suntan lotion.

  (D) It is unreasonable to assume that all suntan lotions required the same application procedures in order to work effectively.

  (E) There is no reason to assume that manufacturers are unaware that people sometimes forget to apply suntan lotion before going in the sun.

  66. A recent survey showed that many workers in a certain company are dissatisfied with their jobs. The survey also showed that most of the dissatisfied workers believe that they have little control over their job assignments. Therefore, to increase workers' job satisfaction the company's management need only concentrated on changing workers' beliefs regarding the degree of control they have over their job assignment.

  Which one of the following, if also shown by the survey, would most seriously call into question the conclusion made by the author of the passage?

  (A) The dissatisfied workers feel that their wages are too low and working conditions are unsatisfactory.

  (B) The number of workers in the company who are satisfied with their jobs is greater than the number of workers who are dissatisfied.

  (C) The workers in the company are more dissatisfied than workers in other companies.

  (D) Most people in company management believe that the workers already have too much control over their work.

  (E) The workers in the company who are satisfied with their jobs believe that they have a lot of control over their job assignments.

  67. It has always been difficult to understand the basis of politics in the People's Republic of China. Because the system is effectively closed, it is impossible to know with any degree of confidence who is allied with whom and for what reasons. Yet Chinese politics does exhibit many of the external characteristics of factional political systems, as found in more open societies. It is legitimate to conclude, therefore, that China has a factional political system.

  Which one of the following, if true, would confirm the author's conclusion that China has a factional political system?

  (A) All open political systems are factional political systems.

  (B) All factional political systems are closed political systems.

  (C) All closed political systems are factional political systems.

  (D) China's political system is more open than many existing factional political systems.

  (E) China's political system is more closed than all existing factional political systems.

  68. Since no one returns from death, we can never be certain about what passes through the mind of the dying person. For the unconscious, the confused, and the heavily sedated, these final moments are probably meaningless. However, for the mentally alert, it is quite possible that death presents itself as an unbelievably glorious experience, a flight into an entirely new universe of sensation. Why should we think so? Some people who have been reprieved from "certain" death at the last moment have experienced what goes through the consciousness of those who are not so fortunate. For example, parachutists who have survived falls report experiences that resemble psychedelic "trips".

  The primary point of the argument in the passage is

  (A) no one returns from death

  (B) dying can be a glorious experience

  (C) we can never know what passes through the mind of a dying person

  (D) some people are reprieved from death at the last moment

  (E) some people "die", yet live to report their experiences

  69. History textbooks frequently need to be revised. The reasons for this are clear: new discoveries of documents and remains, the discovery of mistaken inferences in prior histories, the discovery of previously unnoticed relationships among data, and the application of hitherto undiscovered principles of natural science all may indicate inadequacies in current history texts. Any of these considerations may require that the past be reinterpreted in a manner that is new and more illuminating.

  Which one of the following can be inferred from the argument in the passage?

  (A) The interpretation of historical events is affected by natural science.

  (B) The past is constantly renewed because of illuminating reinterpretations.

  (C) History books are outdated as soon as they are written.

  (D) Natural scientists also function as historians.

  (E) Historians' mistaken inferences are caused by unnoticed relationships among data.

  70. A low-pressure weather system is approaching Plainville; rainfall results from about 70 percent of such systems in the Plainville area. Moreover, the current season, spring, is the time of year in which thundershowers, which sometimes result from low-pressure systems, are most likely to occur in Plainville.

  Knowing which one of the following, in addition to the inFORMation above, would be most useful for determine the probability that Plainville will have a thundershower soon?

  (A) the percentage of thundershowers in Plainville that occur in the spring

  (B) the percentage of spring rainfalls in Plainville that are thundershowers

  (C) the percentage of thundershowers in Plainville that result from low-pressure systems

  (D) whether low-pressure systems in other areas are associated with rainfall

  (E) whether Plainville has more or fewer thundershowers each spring than do near by towns

  71. More than a year ago, the city announced that police would crack down on illegally parked cars and that resources would be diverted from writing speeding tickets to ticketing illegally parked cars. But no crackdown has taken place. The police chief claims that resources have had to be diverted from writing speeding tickets to combating the city's staggering drug problem. Yet the police are still writing as many speeding tickets as ever. Therefore, the excuse about resources being tied up in fighting drug-related crime simply is not true.

  The conclusion in the passage depends on the assumption that

  (A) ever member of the police force is qualified to work on combating the city's drug problem

  (B) drug-related crime is not as serious a problem for the city as the police chief claims it is

  (C) writing speeding tickets should be as important a priority for the city as combating drug-related crime

  (D) the police could be cracking down on illegally parked cars and combating the drug problem without having to reduce writing speeding tickets

  (E) the police cannot continue writing as many speeding tickets as ever while diverting resources to combating drug-related crime

  72. A gas tax of one cent per gallon would raise one billion dollars per year at current consumption rates. Since a tax of fifty cents per gallon would therefore raise fifty billion dollars per year, it seems a perfect way to deal with the federal budget deficit. This tax would have the additional advantage that the resulting drop in the demand for gasoline would be ecologically sound and would keep our county from being too dependent on foreign oil producers.

  Which one of the following most clearly identifies an error in the author's reasoning?

  (A) The author cites irrelevant data.

  (B) The author relies on incorrect current consumption figures.

  (C) The author makes incompatible assumptions.

  (D) The author mistakes an effect for a cause.

  (E) The author appeals to conscience rather than reason.

  73. There is no reason why the work of scientists has to be officially confirmed before being published. There is a system in place for the confirmation or disconfirmation of scientific findings, namely, the replication of results by other scientists. Poor scientific work on the part of any one scientists, which can include anything from careless reporting practices to fraud, is not harmful. It will be exposed and rendered harmless when other scientists conduct experiments and obtain disconfirmatory results.

  Which one of the following, if true, would weaken the argument?

  (A) Scientific experiments can go unchallenged for many years before they are replicated.

  (B) Most scientists work in universities, where their work is submitted to peer review before publication.

  (C) Most scientists are under pressure to make their work accessible to the scrutiny of replication.

  (D) In scientific experiments, careless reporting is more common than fraud.

  (E) Most scientists work as part of a team rather than alone.

  74. Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of childcare services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.

  Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

  (A) The quality of child-care will improve.

  (B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.

  (C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child-care.

  (D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.

  (E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing childcare will not increase.

  75. Advertisers are often criticized for their unscrupulous manipulation of people's tastes and wants. There is evidence, however, that some advertisers are motivated by moral as well as financial considerations. A particular publication decided to change its image from being a family newspaper to concentrating one sex and violence, thus appealing to a different readership. Some advertisers withdrew their advertisements from the publication, and this must have been because they morally disapproved of publishing salacious material.

  Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument?

  (A) The advertisers switched their advertisements to other family newspapers.

  (B) Some advertisers switched from family newspapers to advertise in the changed publication.

  (C) The advertisers expected their product sales to increase if they stayed with the changed publication, but to decrease if they withdrew.

  (D) People who generally read family newspapers are not likely to buy newspapers that concentrate on sex and violence.

  (E) It was expected that the changed publication would appeal principally to those in a different income group.

  76. Learning how to build a nest plays an important part in the breeding success of birds. For example, Dr. Snow has recorded the success of a number of blackbirds in several successive years. He finds that birds nesting for the first time are less successful in breeding than are older birds, and also less successful than they themselves are a year later. This cannot be a mere matter of size and strength, since blackbirds, like the great majority of birds, are fully grown when they leave the nest. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they benefit by their nesting experience.

  Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument?

  (A) Blackbirds build better nests than other birds.

  (B) The capacity of blackbirds to lay viable eggs increase with each successive trial during the first few years of reproduction.

  (C) The breeding success of birds nesting for the second time is greater than that of birds nesting for the first time.

  (D) Smaller and weaker blackbirds breed just as successfully as bigger and stronger blackbirds.

  (E) Up to 25 percent of all birds are killed by predators before they start to nest.

  77. How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airline have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilots' lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes.

  Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?

  (A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.

  (B) Commercial pilot routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.

  (C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.

  (D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.

  (E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.

  Questions 78-79

  Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate from this disease has doubled during the past decade from its previous rate. Two possible explanations for this increase have been offered. First, the recording of deaths due to asthma has become more widespread and accurate in the past decade than it had been previously. Second, there has been an increase in urban pollution. However, since the rate of deaths due to asthma has increased dramatically even in cities with long-standing, comprehensive medical records and with little or no urban pollution, one must instead conclude that the cause of increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers by asthma sufferers to relieve their symptoms.

  78. Each of the following, if true, provides support to the argument EXCEPT:

  (A) Urban populations have doubled in the past decade.

  (B) Records of asthma deaths are as accurate for the past twenty years as for the past ten years.

  (C) Evidence suggests that inhalers make the lungs more sensitive to irritation by airborne pollen.

  (D) By temporarily relieving the symptoms of asthma, inhalers encourage sufferers to avoid more beneficial measures.

  (E) Ten years ago bronchial inhalers were not available as an asthma treatment.

  79. Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

  (A) Urban pollution has not doubled in the past decade.

  (B) Doctors and patients generally ignore the role of allergies in asthma.

  (C) Bronchial inhalers are unsafe, even when used according to the recommended instructions.

  (D) The use of bronchial inhalers aggravates other diseases that frequently occur among asthma sufferers and that often lead to fatal outcomes even when the asthma itself does not.

  (E) Increased urban pollution, improved recording of asthma deaths, and the used of asthma deaths, and the use of bronchial inhalers are the only possible explanations of the increased death rate due to asthma.

  80. Advertisement: Clark brand-name parts are made for cars manufactured in this country. They satisfy all of our government automotive tests-the toughest such tests in the world. With foreign-made parts, you never know which might be reliable and which are cheap look-alikes that are poorly constructed and liable to cost you hundreds of dollars in repairs. Therefore, be smart and insist on brand-name parts by Clark for your car.

  The argument requires the assumption that

  (A) Clark parts are available only in this country

  (B) foreign-made arts are not suitable for cars manufactured in this country

  (C) no foreign-made parts satisfy our government standards

  (D) parts that satisfy or government standards are not as poorly constructed as cheap foreign made parts

  (E) if parts are made for cars manufactured in our country, they are not poorly constructed

  81. Nuclear fusion is a process whereby the nuclei of atoms are joined, or "fused", and in which energy is released. One of the by-products of fusion is helium-4 gas. A recent fusion experiment was conducted using "heavy" water contained in a sealed flask. The flask was, in turn, contained in an air-filled chamber designed to eliminate extraneous vibration. After the experiment, a measurable amount of helium-4 gas was found in the air of the chamber. The experiments cited this evidence in support of their conclusion that fusion had been achieved.

  Which one of the following, if true, would cast doubt on the experimenters' conclusion?

  (A) Helium-4 was not the only gas founding the experiment chamber.

  (B) When fusion is achieved, it normally produces several by-products, including tritium and gamma rays.

  (C) The amount of helium-4 found in the chamber's air did not exceed the amount of helium-4 that is found in ordinary air.

  (D) Helium-4 gas rapidly breaks down, FORMing ordinary helium gas after a few hours.

  (E) Nuclear fusion reactions are characterized by the release of large amount of heat.

  82. Every photograph, because it involves the light rays that something emits hitting film, must in some obvious sense be true. But because it could always have been made to show things differently than it does, it cannot express the whole truth and, in that sense, is false. Therefore, nothing can ever be definitively proved with a photograph.

  Which one of the following, if true, would cast doubt on the experimenters' conclusion?

  (A) Helium-4 was not the only gas found in the experiment chamber.

  (B) When fusion is achieved, it normally produces several by-products, including tritium and gamma rays.

  (C) The amount of helium-4 found in the chamber's air did not exceed the amount of helium-4 that is found in ordinary air.

  (D) Helium-4 gas rapidly breaks down, FORMing ordinary helium gas after a few hours.

  (E) Nuclear fusion reactions are characterized by the release of large amount of heat.

  Questions 83-84

  Some cleaning fluids, synthetic carpets, wall paneling, and other products release toxins, such as FORMaldehyde and benzene, into the household air supply. This is not a problem in well-ventilated houses, but it is a problem in houses that are so well insulated that they trap toxins as well as heat. Recent tests, however, demonstrate that houseplants remove some household toxins from the air and thereby eliminate their danger. In one test, 20 large plants eliminated FORMaldehyde from a small, well-insulated house.

  83. Assume that a person who lives in a small, well-insulated house that contains toxin-releasing products places houseplants, such as those tested, in the house.

  Which one of the following can be expected as a result?

  (A) There will no longer be any need to ventilate the house.

  (B) The concentration of toxins in the household air supply will remain the same.

  (C) The house will be warm and have a sage air supply.

  (D) If there is FORMaldehyde in the household air supply, its level will decrease.

  (E) If FORMaldehyde benzene are being released of each will decrease.

  84. The passage is structured to lead to which one of the following conclusions?

  (A) Houseplants can remove benzene from the air.

  (B) Nonsynthetic products do not release toxins into houses.

  (C) Keeping houseplants is an effective means of trapping heat in a poorly insulated house.

  (D) Keeping houseplants can compensate for some of the negative effects of poor ventilation.

  (E) The air in a well-insulated house with houseplants will contain fewer toxins than the air in a well-ventilated house without houseplants.

  Questions 85-86

  In opposing the 1970 Clean Air Act, the United States automobile industry argued that meeting the act's standards for automobile emissions was neither economically feasible nor environmentally necessary. However, the catalytic converter, invented in 1967, enabled automakers to meet the 1970 standards efficiently. Currently, automakers are lobbying against the government's attempt to pass legislation that would tighten restrictions on automobile emissions. The automakers contend that these new restrictions would be overly expensive and unnecessary to efforts to curb air pollution. Clearly, the automobile industry's position should not be heeded.

  85. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the method used to counter the automakers' current position?

  (A) The automakers' premises are shown to lead to a contradiction.

  (B) Facts are mentioned that show that the automakers are relying on false inFORMation.

  (C) A flaw is pointed out in the reasoning used by the automakers to reach their conclusion.

  (D) A comparison is drawn between the automakers' current position and a position they held in the past.

  (E) Evidence is provided that the new emissions legislation is both economically feasible and environmentally necessary.

  86. Which one of the following, if true, lends the most support to the automakers' current position?

  (A) The more stringent the legislation restricting emission becomes, the more difficult it becomes for automakers to provide the required technology economically.

  (B) Emissions-restriction technology can often be engineered so as to avoid reducing the efficiency with which an automobile uses fuel.

  (C) Not every new piece of legislation restricting emission requires new automotive technology in order for automakers to comply with it.

  (D) The more automobiles there are on the road, the more stringent emission restrictions must be to prevent increased overall air pollution.

  (E) Unless forced to do so by the government, automakers rarely make changes in automotive technology that is not related to profitability.

  87. A survey was recently conducted among ferry passengers on the North Sea. Among the results was this: more of those who had taken anti-seasickness medication before their trip reported symptoms of seasickness than those who had not taken such medication. It is clear, then, that despite claims by drug companies that clinical tests show the contrary, people would be better off not taking anti-seasickness medications.

  Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?

  (A) Given rough enough weather, most ferry passengers will have some symptoms of seasickness.

  (B) The clinical tests reported by the drug companies were conducted by the drug companies' staffs.

  (C) People who do not take anti-seasickness medication are just as likely to respond to a survey on seasickness as people who do.

  (D) The seasickness symptoms of the people who took anti-seasickness medication would have been more severe had they not taken the medication.

  (E) People who have spent money on anti-seasickness medication are less likely to admit symptoms of seasickness than those who have not.

  88. Court records from medieval France show that in the years 1300 to 1400 the number of people arrested in the French realm for "violent interpersonal crimes" (not committed in wars) increased by 30 percent over the number of people arrested for such crimes in the years 1200 to 1300. If the increase was not the result of false arrests, therefore, medieval France had a higher level of documented interpersonal violence in the years 1300 to 1400 than in the years 1200 to 1300.

  Which one of the following statements, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

  (A) In the years 1300 to 1400 the French government's category of violent crimes included an increasing variety of interpersonal crimes that are actually nonviolent.

  (B) Historical accounts by monastic chroniclers in the years 1300 to 1400 are filled with deions of violent attacks committed by people living in the French realm.

  (C) The number of individual agreements between two people in which they swore oaths not to attack each other increased substantially after 1300.

  (D) When English armies tried to conquer parts of France in the mid-to late 1300s, violence in the northern province of Normandy and the southwestern province of Gascony increased.

  (E) The population of medieval France increased substantially during the first five decades of the 1300s, until the deadly bubonic plague decimated the population of France after 1348.

  89. Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or other legumes produce fixed nitrogen, which is one of the essential plant nutrients and which for non-legume crops, such as wheat, normally must be supplied by applications of nitrogen-based fertilizer. So if biotechnology succeeds in producing wheat strains whose roots will play host to Rhizobium bacteria, the need for artificial fertilizers will be reduced.

  The argument above makes which one of the following assumptions?

  (A) Biotechnology should be directed toward producing plants that do not require artificial fertilize.

  (B) Fixed nitrogen is currently the only soil nutrient that must be supplied by artificial fertilizer for growing wheat crops.

  (C) There are no naturally occurring strains of wheat or other grasses that have Rhizobium bacteria living in their roots.

  (D) Legumes are currently the only corps that produce their own supply of fixed nitrogen.

  (E) Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat would produce fixed nitrogen.

  90. Current legislation that requires designated sections for smokers and nonsmokers on the premises of privately owned businesses is an intrusion into the private sector that cannot be justified. The fact that studies indicate that nonsmokers might be harmed by inhaling the smoke from others' cigarettes is not the main issue. Rather, the main issue concerns the government's violation of the right of private businesses to determine their own policies and rules.

  Which of the following is a principle that, if accepted, could enable the conclusion to be properly drawn?

  (A) Government intrusion into the policies and rules of private businesses is justified only when individuals might be harmed.

  (B) The right of individuals to breathe safe air supersedes the right of businesses to be free from government intrusion.

  (C) The right of businesses to self-determination overrides whatever right or duty the government may have to protect the individual.

  (D) It is the duty of private businesses to protect employees from harm in the workplace.

  (E) Where the rights of businesses and the duty of government conflict, the main issue is finding a successful compromise.

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