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GMAT阅读寻找原文定位实例讲解

滴答网 http://www.tigtag.com/  2013-11-08  互联网  我要评论(0)  阅读0

滴答网讯     In Winters v. United States (1908), the Supreme Court held that the right to use waters flowing through or adjacent tothe Fort Belknap Indian Reservation was reserved to American Indians by the treaty establishing the reservation. Although this treaty did not mention water rights, the Court ruled that the federal government, when it created thereservation, intended to deal fairly with American Indians by reserving forthem the waters without which their lands would have been useless. 【Later decisions, citing Winters, established thatcourts can find federal rights to reserve water for particular purposes if (1)the land in question lies within an enclave under exclusive federaljurisdiction, (2) the land has been formally withdrawn from federal public lands—i.e.,withdrawn from the stock of federal lands available for private use underfederal land use laws—and set aside or reserved, and (3) the circumstancesreveal the government intended to reserve water as well as land whenestablishing the reservation. 】

Some American Indian tribes have also established water rights through the courts based on their traditional diversion and use of certain waters prior to the United States’ acquisition of sovereignty. For example, the Rio Grande pueblos already existed when theUnited States acquired sovereignty over New Mexico in 1848. Although they atthat time became part of the United States, the pueblo lands never formally constituted a part of federal public lands; in any event, no treaty, statute,or executive order has ever designated or withdrawn the pueblos from public landsas American Indian reservations. This fact, however, has not barred applicationof the Winters doctrine. What constitutes an American Indian reservation is aquestion of practice, not of legal definition, and the pueblos have always been treated as reservations by the United States. This pragmatic approach is buttressed by Arizona v.California (1963), wherein the Supreme Court indicated that the manner in whichany type of federal reservation is created does not affect the application toit of the Winters doctrine. Therefore, the reserved water rights of PuebloIndians have priority over other citizens’ water rights as of 1848, the year inwhich pueblos must be considered to have become reservations.

说一下做阅读时的方法:

1. 扫一遍文章,大概了解文章内容并注意关键字句,在心里大概记下来。这个步骤不超过50s-1min。

2. 读题目,在题目里找关键词,然后结合通读文章时大概记下来的关键字句,回到原文定位细读。这个步骤不超过40s。

3. 根据刚刚细读文章定位处获取到的信息,排除掉答案中的无关选项和错误选项,这个步骤大概1min左右。

文章里的黑体就是我第一遍读文章的时候注意到的我认为的“关键字句”。

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