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GRE阅读语法——分词作状语结构精讲

滴答网 http://www.tigtag.com/  2014-07-09  互联网  我要评论(0)  阅读0



 

滴答网讯    语法是学习一门语言的精髓,想要学好英语,首先就要掌握各种语法。对于GRE考试而言,语法结构也是非常重要。

要快速读懂GRE考试的阅读题,语法结构是必须要理清的,下面为大家整理了新GRE阅读语法的分词作状语结构。

GRE阅读语法之分词作状语结构:

分词通常有现在分词和过去分词两种,他们在文中,不仅可以作为形用词,而且还能像副词短语那样,说明动词或表达某个整句要表达的概念。例如:Then, having ensured that their species will survive, the shrimp die as the last of the water evaporates.然后,在确保其物种能生存下去之后,虾子就会随着最后一点水蒸发掉而死去。这个句子的having ensured that their species will survive相当于when或者是after,即分词短语可以用来做表示时间的状语部分。又如:Used economically, one bottle of kerosene will last for at least one month.用的节省的话,一瓶煤油至少可以用一个月。这时的分词又可以用来表示条件和原因。再如:Granting the achievement to be GREat, there is still something to be desired.即使成就是巨大的,仍有一些有待改进的地方。这时可见分词短语在这里又可以表示让步。此外分词做状语还可以表示伴随等情况。

此外,需要注意的是分词的两种用法和结构:

1)分词的逻辑主语必须与主句的主语一致,如果不一致,要用独立主格结构。如:All the money having been spent, they had to look for a part-time job.钱花光之后,他们不得不找零活干。

2)with+名词(或代词宾格)+分词(短语)作状语,表示伴随情况。

如:With oil expected to be scarce by the end of the century, the European Community has set aside 36 million dollars for hydrogen research over the past four years.预期本世纪末石油将紧缺,在过去四年里,欧洲共同体已储备了3,600万美元进行氢气的研究工作。

Then, maneuvering that iron stove through that doorway, with another mighty grunt Pete just heaved it forward and outward, and it smashed down against her little grassy-patched dirt back yard, the sounds of the crash and the iron cracking open sending her little spotted feist dog and her few any-breed chichens all yelping and squawking and flying.

句子解析:maneuvering that iron stove through that doorway是现在分词短语作状语,表示时间。the iron c

racking open是独立分词结构,而sending her little spotted feist dog and her few any-breed chichens all yelping and squawking and flying的sending是分词独立结构,而后面的三个现在分词是作为宾语spotted feist dog and her few any-breed chichens的宾语补语。

句子翻译:然后,彼特搬着铁炉走出门口,又大喝了一声,举起铁炉向前往外抛去,顿时落在她乱草丛生的小后院,摔成碎片。撞击声和生铁的破裂声把她的小花狗和几只小鸡吓得咯咯大叫,四散飞逃。

If you haven't actively sought a job in the past week and aren't available for an immediate start, you are moved from the ranks of the “unemployed” to one of a number of other categories---so those who throw up their hands after a period of looking vanish into a one-line column, becoming just blips in the statistician's computer, along with those who haven't been able to get out and look for work, or aren't in areas where jobs exist, or who don't fulfill the other stringent guidelines to be classed as actively looking for work.

句子解析:这个句子很长,但其真正的主句在破折号之前。其主句中if引导了一个表示条件的从句,而破折号之后的内容用于进一步解释one of a number of other categories,who引导的是those的定语从句,becoming just blips in the statistician's computer这个现在分词作为状语用于表示结果,和接下来的伴随状况,along with those who…是一复杂的短语用于状语,用以进一步说明和对比。

句子翻译:如果你在过去的一周里没有积极寻找工作,并且不能马上开始上班,那他们就会把你从“失业者”群转到许多其他类别中的一类,所以那些找了一段时间以后感到绝望的人和那些没能出去找工作或不在有工作的地区或是因不符合其他一些严格标准而没能算在积极寻找工作之列的人一道统统消失掉,变成了统计学家电脑屏幕上的区区亮点而已。

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